Drought challenges fruit industry
agriOrbit - Jan 22nd 2018, 11:12
Western Cape fruit farmers and rural communities are under tremendous socio-economic pressure due to the crippling drought, according to the deciduous fruit industry organisation, Hortgro.
Hortgro is concerned about the unfounded and irresponsible statements made by politicians and uninformed social media users about agriculture and water use. Agriculture in general, specifically the fruit industry, has made great progress with the efficient use of water saving technologies.
Hortgro’s Trade and Markets manager, Jacques du Preez, said in a statement that the current season is a real challenge. “Harvest prospects are not rosy, showing several decreases in crop volumes that will put the export and local market under pressure. The latest crop estimates for mid to late plums, late nectarines, apples, and pears are lower than last year. The figures do not tell the full story. We are in the midst of a drought cycle, so when the full potential of the industry is taken into account, harvest estimates are in some cases down by 25%.”
Early stone fruit has benefited from the sporadic rainfall in October and November, therefore many producers were slightly better off than what was initially expected. This advantage is now a thing of the past. The real challenge of water availability and fruit growth is expected during the summer and autumn period when the largest volumes of fruit are ready for harvesting.
According to Du Preez, most of the Western Cape’s rural areas depend economically on the agricultural industry. The cutting off of the water supply to farmers may have a devastating socio-economic impact on the province.
He points out that there are more than 308 000 workers and their dependents on farms in the fruit industry – without considering all the other employment opportunities throughout the value chain. The biggest impact is on seasonal workers, with an estimated 22 000 jobs that are affected.
Several farmers practice ‘mixed farming’. They grow a permanent fruit crop as well as annual vegetable crops. Due to water limitations, these producers have not planted annual crops this season, opting to save water for their permanent crops, which had further implications for job creation and affected producers’ income. Unemployment leads to urbanisation, which puts further pressure on urban resources, says Du Preez.
The impact of the drought differs dramatically between regions and even between neighbouring farms. It is difficult to sketch a uniform picture of the fruit industry. “Some producers had the infrastructure and capacity to apply good drought strategies, but others – especially those dependent on national water schemes – are under enormous pressure.”
Apart from the drought, other extreme weather conditions such as hail, windstorms and severe sunburn have further pounded the fruit industry this season. Under severe drought stress, the flowering of trees (which for the coming season is already happening in the current season) is weaker and the flowers are also of poor quality, with few cells and a short lifespan.
A drought thus has a significant transfer effect that can put pressure on future production seasons. Fruit orchards are a high-cost investment. It takes up to five years for an orchard to come into production. If trees survive a drought cycle, it takes years for them to recover completely.
Western Cape fruit producers have been aware of water as a scarce resource for decades and have applied innovative production strategies to use water responsibly. For example, fruit farmers are the most diligent users of the FruitLook technology made available by the Western Cape Department of Agriculture. By using FruitLook and accessing satellite data, farmers can pinpoint exactly when trees need irrigation.
The impact of the drought is not only financial but also psychological – making the unfounded comments made in the media irresponsible, says Du Preez. Government legislation does not provide drought aid to fruit producers. The Land Bank does allow loans, but the administration and application processes are complex and time-consuming. There are interest groups working together to provide humanitarian aid in certain regions.
Fruit production drought strategies are:
- The removal of older orchards. Replacing an apple orchard costs R250 000 a hectare and if it’s under nets, the figure can easily reach R500 000 a hectare. Orchards that are removed to try and save water have a big financial impact on farming entities.
- The use of nets. At R250 000 per ha, this is not an option that can quickly be applied across a large area. Research shows that water savings of up to 25% can be obtained.
- Drip irrigation that reduces evaporation can save water, but not all soils are suitable and older orchards’ distributed root systems may initially struggle to adapt to the restricted area of wetting. This can affect the crop negatively.
- Fruit is removed from the trees.
- Fruit farmers review their water usage weekly and adjust strategies accordingly. High-income orchards get more water than average orchards and poorer orchards are removed. If stricter water restrictions are applied or less water is available, the better orchards also get less water.
- The use of moisture meters and irrigation scheduling based on strict parameters.
- The use of FruitLook (fruitlook.co.za) to identify over-irrigation.
- Digging profile holes in orchards to determine root depth and then adjust irrigation accordingly.
Hortgro presented drought seminars in August (Western Cape) and September (Eastern Cape) where strategies for saving water were discussed with producers. Approximately 400 producers attended the seminars.agriOrbit
SA economy at risk of third-quarter contraction
11/10/2019 - 09:54
Dismal mining and manufacturing figures for August have raised the prospect of a third-quarter economic contraction.
Rising feed costs clip Astral’s wings
11/10/2019 - 09:06
Astral Foods, SA’s largest poultry producer, said that rising feed costs and disappointing consumer spending patterns would crop its earnings in the year to end June.
Minister lauds Massmart supplier programme
03/10/2019 - 11:28
Economic development minister Ebrahim Patel has applauded retailer Massmart’s programme to procure products from small, local suppliers, which has reached the R1bn mark.
Rules on production of processed meat will protect consumers, say authorities
01/10/2019 - 16:09
New regulations to protect local consumers against health and safety risks posed by the production of processed-meat products will come into effect in October.
AB InBev revives its offering for Apac in Hong Kong
01/10/2019 - 11:39
Anheuser-Busch InBev (AB InBev) has revived its failed initial public offering (IPO) in Hong Kong by offering 1.26 billion shares of a minority stake of its Asia Pacific subsidiary, Budweiser Brewing Company Apac, and the world’s largest brewer is hoping to raise $5 billion (R74.4bn) on listing.